Games: People and Pastimes – A Look into the History of Board Games in Human Civilisation

Games, especially board games, offer much insight into people’s lives throughout history. Beyond their appeal as pure entertainment, board games have served as a mental exercise, a metaphor for war and power, or a setting for sociability. The rich history of board games, from the strategic intricacies of chess and backgammon to the spiritual depth of mandala, spans diverse origins – from India to Nigeria and from the early Islamic period to the present day. This article delves deep into the history of board games in human civilisation, exploring their ancient origins and their enduring popularity in today’s world. Through the ages, these games have provided people with captivating ways to pass the time, socialise, and compete.

Collection of historical game boards and cards, including chess, backgammon, and Persian cards, displayed at the British Museum. History of Board Games
The photo showcases some of the most exquisite antique game boards from the British Museum, including chess, backgammon, and card games. Video by Kianoush for Craftestan.

Chess in the History of Board Games: War, Strategy, and Cultural Exchange

Chess, a game steeped in the history of board games that transcends geographical boundaries and socio-cultural differences, was originally conceived as a model of war or strategy. Emerging from the heart of India around 500 AD, it quickly found favor in Persia and the burgeoning Islamic empires of the era, planting the seeds of its enduring global appeal.

The propagation of chess is a microcosm of the broader flow of cultural, scientific, and philosophical concepts between East and West during the medieval period. Like an ambassador of intellectual exchange, the game traveled far and wide, touching Asia, Africa, and Europe, and leaving an indelible imprint of its origins on each culture it encountered.

Antique game boards from the British Museum; Video by Kianoush for Craftestan.

Luxury chess sets offer a fascinating window into the socio-economic contexts and artistic sensibilities of the time and place of their creation. The earliest sets were often composed of rare and expensive materials, indicating the game’s early association with the elite classes. Throughout the Islamic world, chess sets became an arena for artisanal excellence, their beauty and sophistication echoing the grandeur of the courts they graced.

Consider the Nigerian chess set, dating from a more recent past but serving as a potent symbol of the game’s history of board games. Preserving many features of the game as it was played in the Islamic world, such as the unique shape of the pieces and the distinct rules, this set reveals intriguing elements of chess’s evolution.

The rules of the game, for instance, underwent significant transformation over time. The queen, which is the most powerful piece on the modern chessboard, was initially a much less potent figure. Moreover, the pieces themselves, while stylized, retain their representation of battlefield units, thus preserving the game’s original war strategy framework.

A Nigerian chess board from 1900, currently located in the British Museum. The board features stylized chess pieces that retain characteristics of the game as it was played in the Islamic world. The queen is much less powerful in this version of the game. History of Board Games
Chess board made of leather, Nigeria, 1912-1926; British Museum. Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

On display at the British Museum is a particularly remarkable Nigerian chess board from Bomu, dating back to 1900. Its design, reminiscent of the Islamic world’s influence, serves as a testament to the extensive cultural exchange facilitated by the centuries-long history of board games.

But chess sets were not limited to being mere recreational objects. They also served as canvases for extraordinary craftsmanship. A prime example of this can be found in a 17th or 18th-century chess board from Northwest India, also housed at the British Museum. This wooden board, resplendent with inlay work of bone or ivory and a vibrant green paste, showcases the opulence associated with the game in the Islamic world.

European travellers visiting India in the 1500s and 1600s recorded seeing similar intricate designs on game boards and other objects, underscoring the prevalence of such craftsmanship during that era. Their records provide a valuable cross-verification of this artistic tradition and its continuity over centuries.

A photograph of an antique chess board from Northwest India on display at the British Museum. The board is crafted from wood and inlaid with bone or ivory and green paste in an intricate design dating back to the 17th or 18th century. The craftsmanship and materials reflect the luxury and cultural heritage of the Indian subcontinent. History of Board Games
This exquisite chess board from Northwest India dates back to the 17th or 18th century and is on display at the British Museum. Crafted from wood and inlaid with bone or ivory and green paste, the intricate design reflects the luxury and value placed on chess in the Islamic world. Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

Chess is far more than a strategic game; it is a cultural artifact, a bearer of historical narratives, and a symbol of global interconnectedness. From its Indian roots to its Islamic refinement and its eventual global spread, the game of chess continues to intrigue and engage, its journey mirroring the fascinating ebb and flow of cultural, scientific, and philosophical exchange between civilisations.

Backgammon: Ancient Roots in the Tapestry of Board Game History

Backgammon, a game of strategy and luck, carries a rich history of board games that takes root in the ancient Iranian world. Its inception predates the arrival of Islam, testifying to the region’s long-standing penchant for intellectual pursuits and social entertainment.

A captivating legend entwines the destinies of backgammon and chess, another ancient game of strategic brilliance. As the story goes, India dispatched chess to the Persian court as a challenge of wit and wisdom. In response, Persia volleyed back with backgammon as a counter-challenge. This tale of friendly rivalry echoes the history of board games and the cultural exchanges and shared intellectual curiosities that connected these ancient civilisations.

The intrinsic bond between these two iconic games is symbolically commemorated in the design of authentic Persian backgammon boards. The reverse side of these boards is typically crafted for a game of chess, embodying the intertwined history and mutual respect between these two games.

Azerbaijani Backgammon Board with Kissing Couple at the British Museum. History of Board Games
Carved wooden game-board for backgammon with second board for chess on the reverse, Azerbaijan, 1900-1950; British Museum, London; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

An exquisite example of such a board hails from Azerbaijan, dating between 1900 and 1950. This backgammon board is a testament to the cultural significance of the game and the artistic finesse of the region’s artisans. The board features a captivating design of a man and woman, clad in traditional attire, sharing a tender kiss.

The imagery on this board speaks volumes of the deeper cultural values cherished in Iranian art. The man and woman’s kiss symbolizes love and passion, themes that run deep within the artistic expressions of the region. It also illustrates how everyday objects, like a game board, can transcend their immediate utility to become vessels of cultural expression and societal commentary.

The fine detailing and intricate design work on the board lend it an aesthetic appeal that extends beyond its functional purpose. It stands as a reflection of the craftsmanship of Azerbaijani artisans, their adeptness in imbuing everyday items with artistic brilliance, and their dedication to keeping their rich cultural heritage alive.

Backgammon is not merely a game; it is an ancient tradition that tells a story of cultural exchange, intellectual rivalry, and artistic beauty. Whether it is the legendary connection with chess or the depiction of love and passion on a game board, backgammon stands as a timeless testament to the enduring appeal of intellectual pursuits and the depth of cultural expression within the Iranian world.

Card Games: A Historic Journey from China to Iran and Beyond

Card games, a universal form of entertainment and strategic engagement, boast a fascinating history of board games that can be traced back to ancient China. These games, like many cultural phenomena, embarked on a journey westward, passing through the rich tapestry of Indian culture before arriving in the diverse landscapes of Iran.

The Chinese may have been the pioneers in developing card games, employing them as mediums of entertainment and social bonding. The migration of these games along ancient trade routes, like the Silk Road, marks another compelling chapter in the global flow of cultural and intellectual ideas. This exchange is a testament to the interconnectedness of ancient civilizations and their shared appreciation for strategic pastimes.

A photograph of Iranian playing cards from the 1800-1900s on display at the British Museum. The cards feature intricate designs depicting Persian epics, everyday life scenes, foreigners, and erotic scenes, with different animals or birds used to distinguish the suits. These cards offer insight into the gaming and artistic traditions of Iran during this time period. History of Board Games
Playing card, made of bone, Iran, 1800-1900; British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

In Iran, these cards found a niche in a game akin to modern poker, typically engaging five participants. The game incorporated an intricate mix of strategy and chance, reflecting the Iranian penchant for intellectual challenges and societal interaction.

Perhaps the most captivating aspect of these early card games were the illustrations adorning the cards. These images spanned a wide spectrum of Persian life, encapsulating historical, societal, and artistic narratives of the era. Iconic scenes from Persian epics, snapshots of contemporary life, depictions of foreigners, and even occasional erotic scenes — all found expression on these miniature canvases. These illustrations rendered each card a historical document, capturing a slice of the socio-cultural zeitgeist.

Distinctive suits, characterised by birds or animals, further enhanced the visual appeal of the cards. The choice of such symbols might have stemmed from the importance of fauna in Persian mythology and the prevalent motifs in the region’s art and literature. These bird or animal figures also served a practical purpose, allowing players to easily distinguish between different card sets.

Ultimately, these card games serve as a testament to the cultural synthesis that marked ancient civilizations. They showcase the adaptability of games as they traverse geographical and cultural boundaries and their potential to assimilate regional nuances. Whether it was the tactical game mechanics that resonated with the strategic Iranian mind or the pictorial cards that doubled as portable art pieces, these card games illustrate a seamless blend of entertainment, art, and social commentary.

Card games are more than mere pastimes; they are carriers of historical narratives and cultural expressions. From their origins in China to their evolution in Iran, and beyond, they encapsulate a journey of cultural exchange and adaptation, offering a unique perspective on the interconnected world of ancient civilizations.

Why the History of Board Games Remains Relevant Today

Board games have been a staple form of entertainment for centuries, and even with the introduction of digital and online games, board games still have a special place in people’s hearts. The tactile experience of moving game pieces and rolling dice, coupled with the social aspect of playing with others, creates a unique and enjoyable experience. From classic board games like chess and backgammon to newer titles like Monopoly, board games offer a wide variety of gameplay and themes to suit any group’s interests. Board games can be enjoyed by people of all ages, making them a perfect pastime for families to bond over or friends to spend an evening together. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in classic board games like chess and backgammon, with more people discovering and appreciating the strategic depth and history behind these games. In a world where technology dominates so much of our time, it’s refreshing to see that board games still hold a special place in our lives.

Conclusion: The Timeless Appeal and Significance in the History of Board Games

Board games have been a part of human civilisation for thousands of years. From the ancient origins of chess and backgammon to the enduring popularity of modern board games, these games offer much insight into people’s lives and the societies in which they lived.

As we’ve seen, board games have served a variety of purposes throughout history. They’ve been used as a mental exercise, a metaphor for war and power, and a setting for sociability. And despite the fact that modern technology has made entertainment more accessible than ever before, board games continue to hold a special place in people’s lives. They offer a unique opportunity for face-to-face interaction and socialisation, something that is becoming increasingly rare in our digital age. In addition, board games provide a sense of challenge and accomplishment that can be difficult to find in other forms of entertainment. Whether you’re a casual player or a serious enthusiast, there’s no denying the timeless appeal of board games.

About Craftestan

After learning about the rich history of board games in human civilisation, you may be interested in owning a board game that represents this heritage. Look no further than Craftestan, where you can find exquisite hand-crafted Persian backgammon and chess boards. Crafted by skilled artisans, these boards not only offer a unique playing experience but also add a touch of luxury to any room.

Craftestan’s backgammon boards are made with high-quality materials and feature intricate designs that reflect the cultural heritage of Iran. Craftestan’s Persian chess boards are crafted with the utmost care and attention to detail. These boards feature beautiful designs and are made with high-quality materials that ensure a lasting playing experience.

If you’re looking for a unique and luxurious board game that represents the rich history of board games, Craftestan is the place to go. With a wide range of options to choose from, you’re sure to find a board game that fits your style and preferences. Visit Craftestan today to see their collection of exquisite hand-crafted Persian backgammon and chess boards.


What is the historical origin of chess and its cultural significance?

Chess originated around 500 AD in India and quickly gained popularity in Persia and the Islamic empires. Its spread symbolizes the flow of cultural, scientific, and philosophical concepts between civilizations, highlighting the game as not just a strategic endeavor but also a beacon of global interconnectedness.

How does backgammon symbolise cultural exchange and intellectual pursuits?

Backgammon, rooted in ancient Iran, carries with it legends of intellectual rivalry and mutual respect with chess. The designs of authentic Persian backgammon boards often accommodate a game of chess on their reverse side. This intertwining history, combined with the artistry and symbolic illustrations on many boards, emphasizes the depth of cultural expression within the Iranian world.

Where did card games originate and how did they evolve culturally?

Card games trace their origins to ancient China. As they migrated westward, especially to Iran, they evolved to incorporate regional nuances. The illustrations on Persian cards captured significant socio-cultural narratives of their era, making each card not just a tool for play but also a historical document.

Related Blog Post

One thought on “Games: People and Pastimes – A Look into the History of Board Games in Human Civilisation

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *