Discover the Rich Culture of Persian Backgammon

The intricate designs, the rich history, and the intense gameplay all contribute to the allure of Persian Backgammon. The game, also known as “Takhte Nard” (Persian: تخته نرد) has been played for centuries and is more than just a pastime in Persia (modern-day Iran); it’s a reflection of the country’s profound cultural heritage. If you’ve ever considered diving deep into the world of backgammon or purchasing a genuine Persian Backgammon set, this guide will illuminate its enchanting depth and why it deserves a spot in your collection.

A Persian craftsman works meticulously with his hands, carefully arranging wooden pieces to create an intricate design on a piece of art using the traditional marquetry technique. His steady and skilled fingers create patterns that demonstrate his mastery of the craft, showcasing the beauty and elegance of Persian artistry.
Artwork, An Iranian Craftsman working on a Persian backgammon, Khatam Kari technique.

History of Persian Backgammon

Backgammon, a game as ancient as civilisation itself, is an iconic representation of historical recreation. Its legacy spans across various cultures and epochs, but its presence in Persia, or modern-day Iran, stands out distinctively. The convergence of ancient backgammon with Persian culture paints a vivid tapestry of evolution, art, and tales told over millennia.

Persian Backgammon’s Mesopotamian Beginnings

Backgammon’s first traces can be found in the heart of Mesopotamia, the cradle of some of the world’s earliest civilisations. Archeologists have unearthed board game relics from sites in Iraq, dating back to around 3,000 BC, resembling early forms of backgammon. These ancient iterations, although rudimentary, show a deep-seated human inclination towards strategic board games and entertainment.

The Silk Road: A Gateway to Persia

The ancient Silk Road, a vast network of trade routes connecting the East to the West, might have played a crucial role in backgammon’s journey to Persia. As traders, pilgrims, and scholars traversed these routes, they brought along with them goods, ideas, and recreational pastimes, including backgammon.

Persian Backgammon and Its Deep Integration into Persian Culture

Once backgammon made its way to Persia, it wasn’t merely adopted; it was transformed. The Persian ethos, rich in poetry, art, and craftsmanship, breathed new life into the game. Backgammon boards from Persia weren’t just functional; they were masterpieces. Crafted from luxurious woods and decorated with intricate inlays of ivory, bone, and precious stones, these boards reflected the zenith of Persian craftsmanship.

Narrative Designs

The beauty of Persian backgammon lies in its ability to convey stories. The boards became canvases where artisans narrated tales from famous epics like Shahnameh or romantic fables of lovers like Layla and Majnun. These designs also often depicted grand battles, valiant heroes, and mythical creatures from Persian folklore.

Moreover, the game’s evolution in Persia wasn’t just aesthetic. The gameplay, while retaining its original essence, adopted variations influenced by regional traditions and customs. These tweaks in rules or strategies made backgammon deeply rooted in the Persian way of life, making it a favoured pastime among both royalty and commoners.

Persian Backgammon and the Influence of Persian Poetry and Philosophy

It’s believed that Persian poets and philosophers, too, were enamored by backgammon. They often allegorized life’s unpredictability and fate using the game as a metaphor. The roll of the dice, the movement of checkers, and the strategy involved became symbolic representations of life’s challenges, choices, and destinies.

Gameplay of Persian Backgammon

In the vast universe of board games, Persian Backgammon holds a singular place. Steeped in history and ornamented with culture, its gameplay is not only strategic but also visually and culturally enthralling.

Persian Backgammon: Understanding the Basic Gameplay Mechanics

Much like its global counterparts, Persian Backgammon invites two players to a duel of strategy and luck. Each player is armed with 15 checkers and the unpredictable roll of two dice. These checkers are not just mere pieces on a board; they are soldiers in a silent battle, maneuvering through enemy lines, seeking the sanctuary of their home board. The ultimate victory lies in bearing off all these checkers before the opponent can achieve the same feat.

Persian Backgammon: A Fusion of Art and Strategic Play

While the fundamental structure of the game remains consistent with its ancient roots, Persian Backgammon distinguishes itself through the mesmerising aesthetics of its board. The board isn’t merely a battleground; it’s a canvas, echoing tales of Persian epics, legends, and artistry. Crafted in intricate designs and patterns, each board showcases the meticulous craftsmanship and rich narrative of Persian art, making every game an immersive cultural experience.

Beginning a Game of Persian Backgammon: Rituals and Traditions

In Persian culture, any game is not just about competition but camaraderie. The onset of a Persian Backgammon game often begins with a customary gesture, maybe a handshake, a warm greeting, or the pouring of a cup of traditional tea. It’s not uncommon for players to set friendly terms – a small wager, a playful challenge, or even just the honour of victory. These initial exchanges set the tone for a game that’s played in good spirit, respect, and mutual admiration.

Strategic Nuances and Regional Variations

Persian Backgammon, while maintaining its core gameplay, has been influenced by regional traditions and customs over the centuries. Depending on the locale, there might be slight variations in starting positions, checker movement, or even the use of the doubling cube. These variations, born out of local customs or strategic innovations, add an extra layer of depth and intrigue to the game.

Symbolism in Gameplay

Every roll of the dice in Persian Backgammon can be seen as a metaphor for fate’s unpredictability in the tapestry of life. The journey of the checkers, facing obstacles, overcoming challenges, and racing towards their home, mirrors our own journey through life, reflecting the philosophical underpinnings of Persian culture.

In essence, playing Persian Backgammon is not just engaging in a game; it’s embarking on a journey. A journey through ancient traditions, breathtaking art, strategic depth, and the timeless allure of Persian culture. Every match is an ode to the rich tapestry of Persian history and the game’s enduring global appeal.

Rules of Persian Backgammon

Delving into Persian Backgammon is like peering into an ancient artefact. While it adheres to the foundational rules familiar to backgammon enthusiasts worldwide, it offers its unique flavours and subtleties that reflect the region’s rich heritage.

Starting Position

The initial setup in Persian Backgammon is crucial and distinctive. Both players commence with:

  • Two checkers on the 24-point: Often referred to as the “distant outpost,” these checkers have the longest journey to the home board, and their movement requires careful consideration.
  • Five checkers on the 13-point: This cluster of checkers offers a strategic advantage, enabling players to control the middle of the board or advance quickly.
  • Three checkers on the 8-point: These act as a bridge, facilitating smooth transitions and swift movement.
  • Five checkers on the 6-point: Positioned close to the home board, these checkers play a vital role during the middle and end stages of the game.

Bearing Off

The process of bearing off is the culmination of a player’s strategy. In Persian Backgammon:

  • Every checker must first convene within the player’s home board, symbolising unity and preparation.
  • Players can then start removing their checkers based on dice rolls, the goal being to remove all checkers before the opponent. A smooth bearing off can often turn the tables in a close match.

Hitting and Entering

In the captivating dance of Persian Backgammon, hitting and entering add layers of suspense:

  • A blot, or a solitary checker on a point, is vulnerable. The opponent can hit this checker, sending it to a purgatorial zone known as the bar.
  • Once on the bar, a checker faces a challenge. It must re-enter the opponent’s home board based on the subsequent dice roll. This re-entry can sometimes be challenging, especially if the opponent’s points are blocked.

Local Variations: A Reflection of Regional Heritage

Persian Backgammon’s beauty lies in its local flavours:

  • Initial Setup Variations: Some regions might have slight changes in the starting positions, influenced by local traditions or evolved strategies.
  • Doubling Cube: While a modern addition, its use in Persian Backgammon varies. Some traditionalists prefer to play without it, while others embrace this strategic twist.
  • Special Rules: Depending on the locale, there might be specific rules regarding re-entry from the bar, use of doubles, or handling late-game scenarios.

In conclusion, Persian Backgammon, while rooted in the classic game’s tenets, offers nuances and subtleties that are a testament to Iran’s diverse culture and traditions. Understanding these rules provides a deeper appreciation of the game’s intricacies and the rich tapestry of Persian heritage.

Strategy in Persian Backgammon

Persian Backgammon, a game of both luck and strategy, offers an intricate dance between the two. While the roll of the dice introduces an element of unpredictability, a keen strategic mind can tilt the odds in its favor. Here are some insights into the deeper strategic layers of this ancient game:

Control the Central Points

In the heart of the board lie the mid-points, and controlling them is pivotal to:

  • Blocking Advances: Dominance over these central points hinders your opponent’s forward momentum, forcing them to make less optimal moves.
  • Facilitating Movement: A stronghold in the middle ensures your checkers have safe points to move to, granting flexibility in both offense and defense.

Leveraging the Doubling Cube

While the doubling cube is a relatively modern addition, it has quickly become a game-changer:

  • Psychological Play: The cube isn’t just about increasing the stakes. It’s a tool of psychology. Offering a double can pressurise opponents, potentially forcing errors.
  • Timing is Everything: Knowing when to double and when to accept or decline a double is pivotal. Consider factors like the current board position, your potential for bearing off, and the overall game score.

Adopting Defensive Tactics

In Persian Backgammon, defense isn’t just a fallback; it’s an art:

  • Blockade Building: Creating a series of blocked points, known as a blockade, can trap your opponent’s checkers, slowing their progress considerably.
  • Safe Movement: When you’re in the lead, avoid leaving blots. Move in pairs or ensure that your checkers are on points already controlled by you, minimising the risk of being hit.

Advanced Strategies

For those looking to delve deeper into the game’s intricacies:

  • Back Game: This involves maintaining two or more anchor points within your opponent’s home board. While risky, if done right, this can disrupt their bearing off process, providing opportunities to hit vulnerable blots.
  • Prime vs. Blitz: Building a ‘prime’ is about creating a wall of six consecutive blocked points, stopping the enemy in their tracks. In contrast, a ‘blitz’ focuses on aggressively hitting the opponent’s checkers, aiming to close them out of the game.

Understanding Your Opponent

Finally, Persian Backgammon isn’t just about understanding the board; it’s about understanding the player across from you:

  • Read Their Playstyle: Are they aggressive? Defensive? Adaptable? Recognizing their tendencies can help you anticipate moves and counteract strategies.
  • Engage in Mind Play: Sometimes, the best moves aren’t just about advancing checkers but about playing the player, subtly influencing their decisions through your moves.

In essence, while the bones (dice) bring fortune or adversity, a masterful strategy ensures you’re prepared for either. Persian Backgammon, with its unique blend of tradition and strategy, remains an enduring testament to the human love for challenge, competition, and camaraderie.

The Rich Culture of Persian Backgammon

At the crossroads of history, art, and strategy lies Persian Backgammon, a game that is as much a visual feast as it is a cerebral challenge. Far beyond the play, it encapsulates the soul of an ancient civilisation, reflecting the rich tapestry of its culture.

Handcrafted Boards: A Testament to Artistry

The very first touch of a Persian Backgammon board reveals its uniqueness. Made of precious woods like walnut, rosewood, or sometimes even mahogany, these boards are more than just playing surfaces:

  • Marquetry Magic: This intricate art form, which involves piecing together veneers of different woods, creates detailed and mesmerising patterns. Persian artisans, having mastered this skill, design boards that are as much a centerpiece as they are a battleground.
  • Bone Inlays and Mother-of-Pearl: Adding to the opulence, shimmering fragments of mother-of-pearl or meticulously carved bone inlays embellish the board, lending it an ethereal glow and adding layers of depth and reflection.
  • A Symphony of Craftsmanship: Together, the wood, marquetry, and inlays come alive, resonating with the countless hours of dedication poured into them by the craftsmen. Their legacy, passed down generations, lives in every game played on these boards.

Narratives Engraved in Design

Each board, while adhering to the traditional layout, carries a unique story:

  • Tales of Persian Folklore: Mythical creatures, legendary heroes, or tales of love and valor might find themselves etched into the board, turning every game into a reenactment of these epics.
  • Historical Chronicles: Some boards might depict key events, famous battles, or iconic landmarks from Persian history, serving as a timeless bridge connecting past and present.

More Than Just a Game

To play on a Persian Backgammon set is to immerse oneself in a ritual:

  • A Journey Through Time: Every roll of the dice, every move of a checker becomes a step through ancient courtyards, bustling bazaars, or serene landscapes of Persia.
  • A Confluence of Art and Tradition: The game seamlessly merges strategic gameplay with cultural appreciation. It’s not merely about the checkers’ journey across the board but also the player’s journey through the heart of Persian civilization.

Owning a Legacy

Possessing a Persian Backgammon set is akin to holding a relic:

  • A Piece of History: These sets, handcrafted and unique, are reminiscent of a time when artistry was paramount, and every creation was a labor of love.
  • Interwoven Stories: Much like a tapestry, where every thread has a purpose, every design element on the board, every swirl, every inlay narrates a chapter of the grand Persian narrative.

In the end, Persian Backgammon stands as a symbol of Iran’s enduring spirit, its deep-rooted culture, and the timeless allure of a game that transcends borders and eras. Whether played in hushed rooms, lively gatherings, or grand tournaments, its essence remains unchanged – a celebration of history, art, and the human spirit.

Two beautiful Persian girls play backgammon on a plush rug, with flowers in their braided hair and competitive yet friendly expressions. The rich colors and patterns add to the lively scene.
Artwork, Iranian girls playing Persian backgammon


Persian Backgammon is more than a game; it’s an experience. It offers a captivating blend of strategy, history, and artistry. Investing in an authentic Persian Backgammon set is not just about enhancing your game collection but about cherishing a piece of ancient civilisation. Embrace the rich culture, engage in strategic gameplay, and let every match be a tribute to the illustrious Persian heritage. Ready to make this age-old treasure yours?

Collection of historical game boards and cards, including chess, backgammon, and Persian cards, displayed at the British Museum.
Centuries of Strategy and Artistry: A Glimpse of Chess, Backgammon, and Persian Card Games at the British Museum. Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.


What is the significance of the handcrafted boards in Persian Backgammon?

The handcrafted boards in Persian Backgammon are a testament to the region’s rich artistry and heritage. Crafted from high-quality woods like walnut or rosewood, they are intricately adorned with marquetry, bone inlays, and mother-of-pearl. Each design element, be it patterns from marquetry or the shimmer of mother-of-pearl, narrates tales from Persian folklore or significant events in its history. Playing on these boards offers an immersive experience, taking one on a journey through time, art, and tradition.

How does Persian Backgammon differ from the global version in terms of gameplay and rules?

While the core gameplay of moving checkers based on dice rolls remains consistent, Persian Backgammon introduces its unique flavours. The starting positions vary slightly, with specific points on the board being prioritised. Additionally, there are regional variations that can influence the initial setup or nuanced strategy points. The game is not just about winning; it’s a rich blend of strategy, art, and culture, making it a unique experience altogether.

What strategies are essential to master Persian Backgammon?

Several strategies can enhance your gameplay in Persian Backgammon. Key tactics include controlling the central points to block your opponent’s advances and using the doubling cube wisely to increase stakes and introduce a psychological play. Defensive play, like building blockades and moving checkers safely, becomes essential when leading. Advanced strategies, such as the back game or choosing between prime and blitz strategies, also play a role in mastering the game. Understanding your opponent’s playstyle and using it to your advantage is equally crucial.

Why is Persian Backgammon considered a cultural journey, and what does owning a set signify?

ersian Backgammon is more than just a game; it’s a voyage through the heart of ancient Persia. Every handcrafted board encapsulates tales from Persian folklore, mythology, or significant historical events. The intricate designs and craftsmanship transport players through time, allowing them to experience art, tradition, and stories with every move. Owning a Persian Backgammon set is akin to possessing a piece of this rich history, an interwoven tapestry of stories that merge seamlessly with gameplay.