The Rich Tapestry of Arabian Clothing: An Exploration into its History and Evolution

When one thinks of Arabian clothing, the mind conjures up images of flowing robes, intricate embroidery, and vibrant colours – symbols of identity, history, and tradition. In Palestine, embroidery has not only been a medium of self-expression but also a living tapestry that captures the essence of its people, culture, and history. The intricacies of Palestinian womenswear, with each region boasting its own unique style, stand testament to the rich culture and artistry of Arabian clothing. This article delves deep into the roots of Arabian clothing in general and Palestinian clothing in particular, touching upon the evolution and the stories they tell.

Array of Arabian clothing items from Palestine exhibited at the British Museum, including embroidered dresses and traditional headdresses.
Exquisite Arabian clothing from Palestine on display at the British Museum, Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan

Embroidery in Arabian Clothing: A Testament to Women’s Identity

In the vibrant tapestry of Palestinian culture, embroidery stands as a monumental tribute. Arabian clothing, especially for women, is more than mere decoration; it paints a portrait of a woman’s individuality, skills, and lineage. The jillayeh, an iconic coat from Galilee that’s an exemplary piece of Arabian clothing, serves as an exemplar of this intricate art. Distinct from the A-shaped dresses of southern Palestine, its design showcases the depth of tradition and regional variations. As it’s worn, the dynamic blocks of silk on the front undulate with each step, producing a mesmerising spectacle of hues and rhythm.

Exquisite Arabian clothing from Palestine on display at the British Museum, Video by Kianoush for Craftestan

The Jillayeh: A Pinnacle of Arabian Attire Fabric

Originating from the historic landscapes of Palestine, particularly Galilee, the jillayeh represents the elegance of Arabian clothing. It is a rich blend of cotton, indigo-dyed to perfection, and embroidered using floss silk threads in a myriad of colours, from regal reds and yellows to calming blues and turquoises. The unique embroidery techniques used, ranging from the intricate cross-stitch to the connecting stitch known as manjal, reflect the diversity of Arabian clothing in the region and the depth of its artisanal heritage.

The coat’s sleeves and front are adorned with silk patches in hues of green, deep fuchsia, and yellow. These patches, shaped and sewn with precision, serve as a canvas for further creativity within Arabian clothing. Their vibrant colours contrast with the deep indigo, akin to the varied and colourful stories embedded in the region’s history.

Accentuating the jillayeh’s silhouette, the coat’s edges are thoughtfully finished with a braided cotton cord. It’s not just a decorative touch; it’s functional. The loops created by this braid serve to fasten the coat with an eye-catching blue glass and a sturdy brown wooden button, merging the practical with the artistic.

A detailed Galilean jillayeh showcasing intricate embroidery patterns and vivid silk patches, emblematic of Arabian clothing and Palestinian identity.
Village woman’s coat (jillayeh) made of indigo dyed cotton, 19th century, Palestine; British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

The Artistry and Craftsmanship Behind Arabian Garments

In a small village in historic Palestine, an artisan laboured with love and dedication. By her window, with the golden rays of the setting sun illuminating her workspace, she dyed the cotton a deep shade of indigo, reminiscent of the night skies above Galilee. As she embroidered with floss silk threads, her fingers danced with grace, each stitch embedding tales of her ancestors, Arabian clothing history, and its vibrant culture.

The red-coloured linen used for the yoke and gussets was not a mere design choice; it symbolised passion, resilience, and the fiery spirit of the Palestinian people. The green, fuchsia, and yellow silk patches appliquéd onto the coat added another layer of storytelling to Arabian clothing, each colour narrating a different tale, a different emotion.

The Veil from Gaza: An Intricate Piece of Arabian Apparel

Gaza, with its alluring coastline and history steeped in myths and legends, finds its voice in the delicate threads and patterns of the ghudfeh. More than a mere accessory of Arabian clothing, this veil, with its intricate V-shaped necklace motifs, is a poetic reflection of the landscape, merging the vast blue sea with the golden embrace of its sands.

Decoding the Ghudfeh: A Tapestry of Arabian Fashion Traditions

Crafted primarily from cotton or linen, the ghudfeh captures the essence of Gaza’s age-old traditions and the rich history of Arabian clothing. The fine silk threads, meticulously embroidered onto the fabric, glisten in the sunlight, reminiscent of the sun’s reflection upon the waves of Gaza’s shores.

Every inch of the ghudfeh speaks of the artisan’s dedication to Arabian clothing and the depth of Palestinian craftsmanship. The choice of cotton or linen as a base material is intentional, mirroring Gaza’s rugged yet nurturing terrain, while the silk embroidery narrates tales of trade, prosperity, and the region’s vibrant artistic expressions.

Detailed ghudfeh from Gaza, embroidered with V-shaped motifs, capturing the essence of Arabian clothing and Palestinian coastal and desert heritage.
Woman’s head veil, 1920s, Palestine; British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

Celebrating the Rich Legacy of Arabian Clothing in Gaza

Picture a serene evening in Gaza, with the sun bidding farewell and casting a golden hue across the horizon. Amid this tranquillity, a young woman sits by her window, her fingers nimbly working on a piece of cotton. Each stitch is a thought, a memory, a dream of Arabian clothing. The V-shaped motifs she embroiders are not mere designs; they symbolise the convergence of Gaza’s marine and desert worlds.

As she adds the final tassels to her ghudfeh, she doesn’t just see a veil; she sees her legacy, her identity, and her tribute to the Arabian clothing that has nurtured countless generations before her. This veil will witness moments of joy, sorrow, love, and hope, becoming an integral part of her journey and that of the many women who choose to embrace it.

The Jillayeh of Ramallah: A Glimpse into Affluent Arabian Fashion and Artistry

The Ramallah jillayeh, a prominent example of Arabian clothing, with its intricate embroideries and majestic appearance, wasn’t merely an attire; it was a declaration. A declaration of a woman’s skill, her position, and the essence of her roots. The indigo-dyed handwoven linen of this coat-dress held stories — tales of gatherings, celebrations, and a collective heritage echoing through the delicate stitches.

Dual Embroidery: A Mesmerising Trait of Arabian Clothing

While the exterior of the Ramallah jillayeh, a gem in Arabian clothing, was adorned with precise stitches showcasing beautiful designs, the inside held a secret. A pattern, equally elaborate, but blurred, offering a shadowy juxtaposition to its outer counterpart. This choice of dual embroidery, although unusual, was a testament to the unwavering attention to detail and the wearer’s affluence. The recurring palm tree motif, a symbol of the region’s landscapes, sways vividly on the sleeves, echoing tales of breezy nights under the Ramallahan sky and sun-soaked days amidst the palm groves.

Detailed embroidery on the indigo-dyed linen of the Ramallah jillayeh, a testament to traditional Arabian clothing and Palestinian artistry.
Village woman’s special occasion coat-dress (jillayeh), Late 19th century to early 20th century, Ramallah (Palestine); British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan

The Craftsmanship Behind the Jillayeh: Celebrating Arabian Clothing Craftsmanship

Crafted in the historic lands of Palestine, especially in Ramallah, this special occasion coat-dress, representative of traditional Arabian clothing, was designed for the discerning woman. Made from indigo-dyed linen, every stitch on the jillayeh, from the vibrant chest panel to the majestic sleeves, is embroidered with a myriad of silk threads. Each hue, be it red, mauve, or a vibrant pink, tells a story.

Stitched with various techniques, from the symmetrical cross-stitch to the intricate zigzag stitch, the jillayeh symbolises an embodiment of the Palestinian legacy of embroidery, a testament to Arabian clothing. The collar and the cuffs, reinforced with cotton bindings, ensure durability while the singular glass button at the neck stands as a beacon of elegance.

The Art of Couched Embroidery in Arabian Garments

Venturing beyond the jillayeh, the technique of couching, or couched embroidery, weaves its own narrative. By affixing silk or metallic thread onto the fabric, rather than through it, it allows the creation of curved, flowing designs. This style, a stark contrast to the more geometric cross-stitch, gained immense popularity in regions like Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Beit Jala. Known locally as tahriri or rashek, couching became an iconic representation of Palestinian embroidery, a proud heritage of Arabian clothing, in the early 1900s, coveted by many and emulated by artisans far and wide.

Detailed embroidery on the indigo-dyed linen of the Ramallah jillayeh, a testament to traditional Arabian clothing and Palestinian artistry.
Village woman’s special occasion coat-dress (jillayeh), Late 19th century to early 20th century, Ramallah (Palestine); British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan

A Timeless Ode to Palestinian Artistry in Arabian Fashion

As the sun sets over Ramallah, casting golden shadows over its historic landscapes, the jillayeh stands out as a beacon of Palestinian heritage. It is more than just a coat-dress; it is a chronicle of decades, a bridge between past and present, and a celebration of the unparalleled artistry of Palestinian craftswomen, a nod to Arabian clothing traditions.

The Elegance of Palestinian Cushion Covers: Beyond Traditional Arabian Clothing

Beyond the realm of clothing and personal adornment, the rich tradition of Palestinian embroidery finds its expression in the most unexpected of places — cushion covers. Made with the delicate softness of sky blue satin silk, these cushion covers from the world of Arabian clothing are more than mere decorative pieces. They are a canvas, upon which artisans weave tales of heritage, skill, and passion.

Silk and Stitch: Mastery in Arabian Textile Arts

The cover stands out with its embroidered panels of vibrant orange and deep burgundy red silk taffeta, seamlessly connected with intricate connecting stitches known as manajel. The vivid hues of red, pink, turquoise, and even a gentle magenta, dance across the silk in symmetrical cross-stitches, playful reverse chain stitches, and the delicate art of couching. The masterful inclusion of diverse techniques stands as a testament to the maker’s dedication.

Embroidered satin silk cushion cover with vibrant colors, showcasing traditional Palestinian craftsmanship and Arabian design influences. Arabian clothing
Cushion cover made of sky blue satin silk, and embroidered orange and burgundy red silk taffeta, Early 20th century, Palestine; British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

Storytelling Borders: The Richness of Arabian Textile Design

The borders of this cushion cover are not just mere boundaries. Appliqued with a zigzag pattern of orange, green, and burgundy red silk taffeta, known locally as tishrim or tishrifeh, they frame the artistry within, adding depth and character to the overall design. And at its centre, like a cherry atop a cake, a colourful silk tassel stands, serving both an aesthetic and functional purpose.

Central Palestinian Embroidery: A Fusion of Cultures Enhancing Arabian Clothing

Central Palestine, with its historic hubs of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, has long been a melting pot of cultures. Over the centuries, these cities and their surrounding villages have welcomed religious officials, pilgrims, government functionaries, and tourists from across the world. Each visitor, consciously or not, left behind a touch of their culture, influencing and enriching local traditions. Among the most intricate manifestations of this cultural synthesis is the art of Palestinian embroidery, where local creativity beautifully reinterpreted foreign influences, adding to the rich tapestry of Arabian clothing.

The Bethlehem Lacket: A Masterpiece of Arabian Clothing

The taqsireh, commonly referred to as the lacket, heralds predominantly from Bethlehem, with occasional pieces originating from Beit Jala. Crafted primarily from deep red felted woollen broadcloth, the embroidery on these jackets showcases an undeniable influence from both elaborate church vestments and Ottoman state uniforms. The intricate couching, done with vividly coloured silk cords, paints a picture of the region’s rich multicultural heritage. Its heavy embroidery, especially evident on the front, shoulders, cuffs, and back, was most likely the work of a professional embroiderer — a testament to the piece’s significance and value.

Historic Central Palestinian garments embroidered intricately, representing a fusion of cultural influences from Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and beyond. Arabian clothing
Village woman’s dress (thob) made of a Syrian cream coloured silk with gold/yellow satin stitch (ghabani),early 20th century, Syria; British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan

The Jerusalem Dress: Silk and Embroidery Celebrating Arabian Aesthetics

Hailing from Lifta, near Jerusalem, this village woman’s dress stands as a marvel of combined ingenuity and artistry. Crafted primarily from luxurious Syrian cream-coloured silk adorned with golden-yellow satin stitch, the dress is a reflection of opulence. Embroidered silk inserts grace the chest, sleeves, and side panels, their intricate designs a testament to the craftsmanship of the time. The combination of imported fabric and the elaborate couching, a stitch technique that stands out in its grandeur, signifies not only wealth but also a keen eye for style and innovation.

Central Palestinian Narratives: Melding Past and Present in Arabian Clothing

Each piece, whether the ornate taqsireh or the luxurious dress, tells a story of a place where cultures converged. They are more than mere clothing items; they are narratives woven in silk and cotton. The garments speak of bustling markets, of hushed negotiations over textile imports, of the whispered tales of travellers, and of artisans meticulously working under the warm Palestinian sun. Even today, as one beholds these garments, they’re immediately transported to a world where every stitch has a story to tell, where every hue echoes a bygone era, and where artistry is not just about aesthetics but also about preserving a rich, intertwined heritage for generations to come. Central Palestinian embroidery is not just a craft; it’s a chronicle of history, an ode to the land’s spirit, and a resounding affirmation of the beauty and depth of Arabian clothing.

Historic Central Palestinian garments embroidered intricately, representing a fusion of cultural influences from Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and beyond. Arabian clothing
Village woman’s dress (thob) made of a Syrian cream coloured silk with gold/yellow satin stitch (ghabani),early 20th century, Syria; British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan

Palestinian Headdresses: Hidden Treasures of Arabian Accessories

In the rich tapestry of Palestinian culture, every accessory carries its own story, and none are more intriguing than the women’s headdresses. These ornaments are more than mere headgear; they’re an intricate narrative of identity, wealth, and tradition.

Veiled Narratives: The Stories Behind Arabian Headdresses

Across the picturesque landscapes of Palestine, women’s headdresses have historically acted as silent narrators of myriad tales. Their designs and embellishments varied from one region to another, subtly yet unmistakably revealing nuances about a woman’s marital status, regional roots, and socio-economic standing. And while they might have been concealed under veils, the artistry of these headdresses wasn’t to be contained. As women moved, the veils would flutter, granting onlookers a fleeting glimpse of the meticulous embroidery and sparkling adornments hidden beneath – a dance of hidden beauty and mystique.

Married village woman's head-dress (shatweh) made of red broadcloth. Arabian clothing
Married village woman’s head-dress (shatweh) made of red broadcloth, 19th century, Palestine; British Museum; Photo by Kianoush for Craftestan.

The Shatweh: An Affluent Testament in Arabian Headwear

Prominently worn by married women of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, the shatweh is reminiscent of a tailored fez. Crafted from vibrant red broadcloth, this headdress isn’t just a piece of fabric but a canvas for intricate stories. Embroidered satin stitches grace its sides, while the gold threads weave tales of opulence. The headdress is adorned with multiple rows of coins, symbolising the wearer’s affluence.

An eye-catching element of the shatweh is the silver disc, known as qurs, which boasts a stamped pattern and pendant coins. This disc, combined with the triangular pendants set with green glass, are not just aesthetic additions but are rich in symbolism. The red coral or glass bead embellishments speak volumes about the wearer, subtly referencing her fertility.

Headdresses Echoing Arabian Traditions and Tales

Beyond the shatweh, there’s the aragiyeh cap from Hebron. Its design includes elongated bands that flow gracefully down, designed to cover the plaited hair of a married woman. Like its Jerusalem counterpart, this headdress too is generously adorned with coins or coin-like tokens, each piece recounting tales of the wearer’s wealth.

The Generational Craftsmanship of Arabian Headdresses

The technique and materials used in these headdresses – from felting and embroidery to couching and stamping – are a testament to the unparalleled craftsmanship of Palestinian artisans. Every stitch, every bead, and every coin carries with it centuries of tradition, passed down through generations, holding steadfast in the face of changing times. The headdresses of Palestinian women are more than mere fashion accessories; they’re a bridge to the past, a nod to tradition, and a beacon of identity. As one observes these pieces, it becomes evident that they’re not just about aesthetics but also a celebration of cultural legacy and personal stories waiting to be discovered.


The intricate tapestry of Palestinian embroidery is more than just a testament to the exceptional skills of its artisans; it’s a reflection of a land steeped in history, culture, and diversity. As we have journeyed through the alleys of Ramallah, the historic hubs of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, and the tales of various garments, one thing stands clear: the immeasurable value and significance of Arabian clothing in this narrative.

Palestinian embroidery isn’t merely about vibrant threads on fabric; it’s a rich, vivid dialogue between past and present, bridging generations, telling tales of conquests, celebrations, hardships, and hope. Each stitch captures the spirit of its people, the resilience of the artisans, and the pride of its bearers.

And while the world continues to evolve, and trends in fashion come and go, the legacy of Arabian clothing in Palestinian embroidery remains timeless. It stands as a testament to the enduring spirit of a region, its people, and the intricate, unparalleled artistry that has been handed down through generations.

To truly appreciate Palestinian embroidery is to delve into the heart of Arabian culture, to connect with stories woven through time, and to celebrate an art form that, despite all odds, continues to flourish, inspire, and resonate in the global tapestry of textile arts.

In the end, the beauty of Arabian clothing, particularly as showcased in Palestinian embroidery, lies not just in its visual appeal but in its ability to whisper tales of a bygone era while simultaneously echoing aspirations of tomorrow. It’s a bridge between worlds, a canvas of dreams, and, most importantly, a cherished heirloom that will continue to captivate and inspire for generations to come.

About Craftestan

Now that you’ve read about the Arabian clothing, we invite you to embark on another cultural journey with Craftestan, a beacon of Persian craftsmanship and dedication. Craftestan isn’t just an establishment; it’s a profound expression of love for Persian culture and its exquisite handicrafts. Our platform breathes life into the stories of artists and artisans, allowing them to share their tales, techniques, and talents with the world. While every handcrafted piece we offer radiates beauty, it also carries the weight of a brighter future for artisan communities throughout Persia.

There’s an unmatched allure in the handmade – a whisper of tales untold, a heartbeat of the creator, an essence that is irreplaceable. Our core belief at Craftestan is that the value of handmade isn’t just confined to the finished product. It’s in the meticulous selection of the finest raw materials, the revival of traditional motifs, and the collaboration with artisans who pour their essence into what they create. When you pick a Craftestan piece, you’re not just acquiring an item, you’re embracing a singular work of art, infused with passion and pride.

But our journey goes deeper than just crafting beautiful pieces. We stride forward as a force for positive change. At the very heart of Craftestan is a commitment to fairness, sustainability, and empowerment. Recognising our artisans and craftspeople as the true essence of our enterprise, we support them beyond mere collaboration. From honing their skills to enhancing market awareness, we advocate for a business model that celebrates gender equality, fair remuneration, and growth. In essence, we’re reshaping the crafts landscape, emphasising that a business can, and should, be a conduit for positive transformation.

Our debut collection doesn’t just showcase intricate embroidery; it is a powerful homage to the indomitable spirit of Persian craftswomen. From the provinces of Khorasan, Balochistan, to Azerbaijan in Iran, we have united over 100 adept needleworkers. These women, epitomising skill and determination, are more than artisans. They are pillars of their communities, bridging roles as caregivers, breadwinners, and pioneers. Their collective effort for Craftestan is not just a collaboration; it’s a tapestry of their life, culture, and aspirations.

We cordially invite you to explore our product page and categories. By choosing Craftestan, you don’t just buy a product; you embrace a culture, support a dream, and wear a tale. Let us celebrate together the rich heritage, the unmatched artistry, and the stories that need to be told. Your next treasured possession awaits, woven with tales of yore and dreams of tomorrow.


What is Palestinian embroidery, and why is it significant in Arabian culture?

Palestinian embroidery, commonly known as “tatreez”, is a traditional form of hand-stitched art that has been practiced in Palestine for centuries. It’s not just an art form but a tapestry of historical narratives, cultural identity, and personal stories. Embedded within the vibrant threads and patterns are tales of conquests, celebrations, and resilience. It’s a testament to the spirit of its people, capturing the essence of Arabian culture and the rich history of the region.

How can one identify the origin or significance of a particular Palestinian embroidery piece?

The design, motifs, and even the colours of Palestinian embroidery can hint at its origin or the story it wishes to tell. Specific patterns or colour combinations are unique to certain regions, like the “lacket” from Bethlehem or the “shatweh” headdress of Jerusalem. Additionally, details such as the type of stitches used, the incorporation of beads, coins, or other embellishments can provide insights into the socio-economic status, marital condition, and regional roots of the wearer.

How is the artistry of Palestinian embroidery preserved and passed down through generations?

Palestinian embroidery has been traditionally passed down from mothers to daughters. Families often have unique patterns and designs that are taught and shared within the household. Today, with globalisation and technological advancements, various organisations, artisans, and enthusiasts are conducting workshops, hosting exhibitions, and even offering online courses to ensure this intricate art form remains alive and continues to resonate with younger generations.

Are there modern applications or adaptations of Palestinian embroidery in today’s fashion world?

While traditional garments like the taqsireh or the village woman’s dress are still cherished, contemporary fashion designers are integrating Palestinian embroidery into modern attire. From everyday wear like jeans and t-shirts adorned with tatreez motifs to haute couture gowns featuring intricate embroidery, Palestinian embroidery has found its place in global fashion, bridging the ancient with the avant-garde.

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